Included here is the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula including Oman and the eastermost parts of the United Arab Emirates.

Omanian Xeromorphic Open Scrub

Dry, open scrub largely dominated by Commiphora myrrha and Euphorbia larica occur on karstic coastal terraces. Other common species are Acacia ethbaica, Grewia tenax var. erthraea and Ochradenus arabicus, all of which are characteristic of this rugged karstic relief with rapid water run-off and pronounced erosion. However, species composition varies. On the mountain range south of Madinat Qabus, which is mainly karstic limestone and dolomites, the dominant taxa are jointed by various endemic or near endemic species. These include shrubs such as Ochradenus aucheri (Resedaceae) and Rhus aucheri (Anacardiaceae), chamaephytes such as Jaubertia aucheri (Rubiaceae) and Teucrium stocksianum (Lamiaceae), hemicrytophytes such as Caralluma aucheriana (Apocynaceae), Convolvulus virgatus (Convolvulaceae) and Diplotaxis harra (Brassicaceae), and therophytes like Herniaria mascatensis (Caryophyllaceae).

Omanian Gravel Plain Scrub

Gravel plains are found throughout central and eastern areas and although these are classed as hyper arid, frequent fogs and dew formation supplements the available water. The vegetation largely comprises open Acacia scrub with A. ebrenbergiana and A. tortilis, together with Prosopis cineraria and the endemic Ziziphus leucodermis (Rhamnaceae). Shrubs of more limited distribution are Pulicaria glutinosa and the near endemic Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae). The ground layer includes several grasses such as Stipagrostis sokotrana, which is an important food source for Arabian Onyx, while other notable species include Nannorrhops ritcheana, Pulicaria undulata and the endemic Convolvulus oppositifolia (Convolvulaceae) and Pulicaria pulvinata (Asteraceae). Of interest in coastal limestone areas is the endemic Hyoscyamus gallagheri (Solanaceae).

Omanian Wadi Scrub

The vegetation of wadis can vary from place to place. On Salahah plain they include shrubs such as the endemic Commiphora foliacea (Burseraceae) and Zizyphus leucodermis (Rhamnaceae). The sandy gravel in the middle of wadis may include Anticharis glandulosa, Commicarpus boissieri, Gossypium herbaceum, Heliotropium dasycarpum, Fagonia socatrana var. somalica, Tricholaena teneriffae, and the endemic or near endemic Lavendula subnuda (Lamiaceae), together with the near endemic grass Eragrostis mahrana (Poaceae). The latter was originally described from the Hadhramaut and named after the Mahra tribe whose territory lies in south Yemen immediately to the west of Dhofar. The banks of wadis may also have a distinctive assemblage of species. For example, in some of the western wadis, the north facing banks include Barleria acanthoides, Boerhavia elegans, Endostemon tenuiflorus, Tribulus terrestris, Saddera latifolia and the near endemic Pavonias subaphylla (Malvaceae). Wadi Ayun represents, a northward-draining wadi, is a deep gorge that has been carved through limestone. In the dryer parts of this and its tributaries the gravel beds include species such as Tamarix mannifera and several endemic or near endemic species such as Anticharis arabica (Scrophulariaceae), Euphorbia arabica (Euphorbiaceae), Lavendula nimmoi (Lamiaceae), Trichodesma boisseri (Boraginaceae) and the strange parasitic species Cistanche rosea (Orobanchaceae). Wadis in this part of the world are also known for their celebrated frankincense (Boswellia sacra), which can be found, for example, in abundance in Wadi Adawnib. Its vivid dark green leaves making it a conspicuous part of the landscape. Other endemic or near endemic species associated with the wadis of this BioProvince include Barleria aucherana (Acanthaceae), Polygala dhofarica (Polygalaceae), Reseda sphenocleoides (Resedaceae), Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) and Trichodesma cardiosepalum (Boraginaceae).     

References

Cope, T. A. 1988. The Flora of the Sands. Journal of Oman Studies, No. 3: 305-312.

Fisher, M., Ghazanfar, S. A. & Spalton, A. 1999. The Natural History of Oman. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

Frey, W & K├╝rschner, H.1986. Masqat area (Oman). Remnants of vegetation in an urban habitat. In: Contributions to the Vegetation of Southwest Asia. Ed. H. K├╝rschner. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Ghazanfar, S. A. 1999. Coastal vegetation of Oman. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 49: 21-27.

Ghazanfar, S. A. 2004. Biology of the Central Desert of Oman. Turkish Journal of Botany, 28: 65-71.

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Fisher, M. 1998. Vegetation of the Arabian Peninsula. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Miller, A. G. & Nyberg, J. A. 1991. Patterns of endemism in Arabia. Flora et Vegetatio Mundi, 9: 263-279.

Radcliffe-Smith, A. 1980. The vegetation of Dhofar. Journal of Oman Studies, Special Report No. 2: 59-86.

Zohary, M., Heyn, C. C. & Heller, D. 1980. Conspectus Florae Orientalis. The Israel Academy of Science and Humanities. Jerusalem.