Included here is Makran a cross border regions situated in southern Iran and Pakistan adjacent to the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman.

Sand Dune Formations

In certain places such as the Pasni areas the shifting sands are virtually devoid of vegetation. Only specialized plants like the creeping sand binding Aerva javanica, Citrullus colocynthis, Cyperus arenarius and Heliotropium bacciferum are able to grow well in this environment. They also help to stabilize the sand. Other species may include Calotrophis procera (which is avoided by grazing animals due to its sour, milky secretions), and the creeping annual Neurada procumbens, which helps its dissemination by producing spiny fruit that cling to animal fur. In the more stabilized dunes the endemic Convolvulus cephalopodes (Convolvulaceae) may be encountered, which is confined to South Iran and the Makran.

References

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Heshmati, G. A. 2007. Vegetation characteristics of four ecological zones of Iran. Journal of Plant Production, 1: 215-224.

Frey, W. &  Probst, W. 1986. A synopsis of the vegetation of Iran. In: Contributions to the Vegetation of Southwest Asia. Ed. H. K├╝rschner. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Leporatti, M. L. & Lattanzi, E. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of the flora of Makran (Southern Pakistan). Webbia, 53: 283-335.

McGinnies, W. G. et al. (eds). 1970. Deserts of the World. The University of Arizona Press.

Walter, H. & Box, E. O. 1983. Afghanistan and Iran. In: Ecosystems of the World 5 - Temperate Deserts and Semi-Deserts. Ed. N. E. West. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

Zohary, M. 1963. Geobotanical structure of Iran. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel. 11D (Supplement): 1-113.

Zohary, M., Heyn, C. C. & Heller, D. 1980. Conspectus Florae Orientalis. The Israel Academy of Science and Humanities. Jerusalem.