Included here is Makran a cross border regions situated in southern Iran and Pakistan adjacent to the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. It is an upland, generally arid region, with east-west ranges of mountains including the Coastal Makran Range with heights up to 1578 m and the Central Makran Range with heights up to 2286 m. Also included is the Siyahan Range with heights up to up 2060 m

Makranian Rocky Upland Formations

Upland vegetation can be found on the Pliocenic arenaceous rocks of the Kech Band, Gockprush Band, Jiwani and the hills near Tump and Mand. The extreme temperatures prevent the development of rich vegetation and it largely consists of scattered trees of Dalbergia sissoo, Gymnosporia senegalensis and Tamarix indica and shrubs of Astragalus stocksii, Dodonaea viscosa, Grewia tenax, Vitex negundo and Zygophyllum eurypterum. The dwarf palm Nanorrhops ritchieana colonizes dry riverbeds. At ground level below various trees annuals such as Notoceras bicorne and the endemic or near endemic Viola makranica (Violaceae) form ephemeral cover on some of the richer soils. Perennial herbs are largely confined to rock crevices and gravelly slopes. These may include Cleome oxypetala, Euphorbia osyridea, Otostegia persica and Salvia aegyptiaca. In small crevices of a ravine in Kech Band, Pycnocicla bashagardiana (family?) has been recorded. This species appears to be endemic to Iran and Pakistan. The most natural upland vegetation occurs on the promontories of Gwadar and Ormara. Here the territory has been under military occupation and so no exploitation of the vegetation has been allowed. The most typical species of these protected areas is Commiphora wightii, a spiny, creeping tree. The ground layer on gravel soils includes the grasses Enneapogon brachystachyus, Lasiurus scindicus and Tricholaena teneriffae, while rock crevices provide habitat for the climbers Capparis cartilaginea, Pentatropis spiralis and Pergularia tomentosa. Where rocky debris prevails chamaephytes and hemicryptophytes such as Cleome brachycarpa, Commicarpus stenocarpus, Grantia aucheri, Launaea oligocephala, Pluchea arguta and Sphaerocoma aucheri become the main species. In the sheltered valleys small thorny trees such as Gymnosporia senegalensis and Ziziphus nummularia occur and in the wet season ephemeral like Aizoon canariense, Asphodelus tenuifolius, Aristida adscensionis, Geranium mascatense and Reichardia orientalis make an appearance for a short time. On the slopes of Kech Band scattered stands of Pistacia khinjuk are considered to be a relict of once more extensive montane vegetation.

References

Heshmati, G. A. 2007. Vegetation characteristics of four ecological zones of Iran. Journal of Plant Production, 1: 215-224.

Frey, W. &  Probst, W. 1986. A synopsis of the vegetation of Iran. In: Contributions to the Vegetation of Southwest Asia. Ed. H. K├╝rschner. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Leporatti, M. L. & Lattanzi, E. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of the flora of Makran (Southern Pakistan). Webbia, 53: 283-335.

Zohary, M. 1963. Geobotanical structure of Iran. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel. 11D (Supplement): 1-113.

Zohary, M., Heyn, C. C. & Heller, D. 1980. Conspectus Florae Orientalis. The Israel Academy of Science and Humanities. Jerusalem.