Included here is the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and the adjacent Alborz, Talish and Elburz mountains.

Hyrcanian Cupressus sempervirens Forest

These rare cypress forests are thought to be relict stands of a once much more extensive forest of ancient Mediterranean vegetation that probably pre-dates much of the current Hyrcanian vegetation. They typically occur in the rain shadow of deep valleys cutting the Alborz range in Chalus (Hassan Abad, close to Marzanabad), Sefidrud valley near Rudbar and Manjil, and Sourkesh forest near Katool valley (Gorgan). Typical Mediterranean elements include Asteriscus spinosus, Jasminum fruticans, Myrtus communis and Salvia viridis.

References

 

Akhani, H., Djamali, M., Ghorbanalizadeh, A. & Ramezani, E. 2010. Plant biodiversity of Hyrcanian relict forest, N. Iran: an overview of the flora, vegetation, palaeoecology and conservation. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42:231-258.

Browicz, K. 1987. Chorology of the Euxinian and Hyrcanian elements in the woody flora of Asia. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 162: 305-314.

Frey, W. & Probst, W. 1986. A synopsis of the vegetation of Iran. In: Contributions to the Vegetation of Southwest Asia. Ed. H. K├╝rschner. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Hedge, C. & Wendelbo, P. 1978. Patterns of distribution and endemism in Iran. Notes of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 36: 441-464.

Heshmati, G. A. 2007. Vegetation characteristics of four ecological zones of Iran. Journal of Plant Production, 1: 215-224.

Zohary, M. 1971. The Phytogeographical Foundations of the Middle East. In: Plant Life of South-West Asia. Eds. P. H. Davies, P. C. Harper & I. C. Hedge. The Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

Zohary, M. 1973. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East. Volumes 1 & 2. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart & Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam.

Zohary, M., Heyn, C. C. & Heller, D. 1980. Conspectus Florae Orientalis. The Israel Academy of Science and Humanities. Jerusalem.